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Scheduling is the method by which work is assigned to resources to complete that work. At the operating system level, this can mean scheduling of threads and processes. At the data center level, this can mean scheduling Hadoop jobs or other workflows that require the orchestration of a network of computers.
Adrian Cockcroft worked on scheduling at Sun Microsystems, eBay, and Netflix. In each of these environments, the nature of what was being scheduled was different, but the goals of the scheduling algorithms were analogous–throughput, response time, and cache affinity are relevant in different ways at each layer of the stack.
Adrian is well-known for helping bring Netflix onto Amazon Web Services, and I recommend watching the numerous YouTube videos of Adrian talking about that transformation.